Upravni i neupravni govor u engleskom jeziku (Direct and indirect speech)

SAY and TELL

Kada nekome želimo da ispričamo ili prenesemo šta je neko drugi rekao, pitao ili komentarisao, koristi se neupravni govor. Neupravnim govorom mogu se preneti:

1)      Zapovesti i učtive molbe

2)      potvrdne i

3)      upitne rečenice

Pogledajte primere sa zapovestima i učtivim molbama:

Tom: “Please, come with me.“

I begged you to come with me.

Mother: “Buy some strawberries!“

Ann: Mother told me to buy some strawberries.

Primećujete da su delovi rečenice sa neupravnim govorom spojeni predlogom to. Glagol koji se nalazi iza predloga to stoji u infinitivu.

Na početku rečenice se uglavnom nalaze glagoli ask, tell ili say, a u ovom slučaju beg. Ako je reč o odričnom obliku, takođe se mora upotrebiti infinitiv, ali se ispred njega stavlja reč NOT. Evo primera:

Be home by ten o’clock!”

She told him to be home by ten o’clock.

Mother: “Don’t stay out too long!“

Mother told us not to stay too long.

Ako je trenutak u kome se prepričava događaj udaljen od trenutka kada se radnja desila, onda uvodni glagol mora biti u prošlom vremenu (told) i tada dolazi do važnih promena u glagolskim vremenima (slaganja vremena).

Helen: “I visited Moscow last summer.“

Helen said (that) she had visited Moscow the prevoius year.

Dakle, čim je glagol u uvodnoj rečenici u prošlosti, dolazi do promene glagolskih vremena u rečenicama. Tako je u prethodnom primeru Past Simple prešao u Past Perfect.

Kod glagolskih vremena se dešavaju sledeće promene:

tenses

I upitne rečenice se mogu prebaciti u neupravni govor. Kod Wh- pitanja veza između dve rečnice je Wh- zamenica  kojom počinje pitanje.

Bez slaganja vremena(kada je uvodni glagol u sadašnjem ili budućem vremenu):

George: „Where are my shoes?“

HE: George asks where are his shoes.

George asks where his shoes are.

Sa slaganjem vremena (kada je uvodni glagol u prošlom vremenu):

Kate: „Where did you buy this dress?“

Kate asked me where did I buy that dress.

Kate asked me where I bought that dress.

Red reči u neupravnom govoru je kao kod potvrdne rečenice, jer se samo prenosi ono što je neko pitao ili rekao. Kod Yes/No pitanja je slična situacija – umesto Wh- zamenice, koju nemamo, koristi se veznik IF ili WHETHER. Evo primera:

Sarah: “Have you ever seen that movie?”

Sarah wanted to know whether I had seen that movie.

Kod priloških odredaba za vreme dolazi do sledećih promena:

Now, at the moment => then, at the time

Today => that day

Yesterday => the day before, the previous day

Tomorrow => the next day, the following day

This week => that week

Last week => the week before, the previous week

Sada je vreme za sledeća vežbanja:

Reported speech 1 – Bill Gates / famous sayings

Reported speech 2

Reported speech 3

Reported speech 4

Reported speech 5 

Posle popunjavanja svih polja, kliknite na DONE kako biste proverili broj osvojenih poena, dok klik na Show answers prikazuje tačne odgovore.

Pasiv u engleskom jeziku

active vs passive voice

Pravilo za građenje pasiva u engleskom jeziku glasi:

Glagol TO BE u odgovarajućem vremenu + Past Participle

Pasiv se u engleskom jeziku upotrebljava mnogo češće nego u srpskom i to kada želimo da istaknemo ono što se dogodilo (objekat), a ne onoga ko je to uradio (subjekat). Često se ista rečenica može oblikovati na dva načina. Uporedite sledeće dve rečenice:

1U prvoj rečenici govorimo o naučniku i zanima nas šta je on pronašao. Zato se na početku rečenice on nalazi kao subjekat.

U drugoj rečenici, na početku više nije naučnik nego otkriće. Dakle, sada nam je najvažnije otkriće, a ne onaj koji ga je napravio. Objekat prve rečenice je tako postao subjekat druge rečenice, dok je subjekat prve rečenice zauzeo mesto objekta.

To samo po sebi nije dovoljno. Neophodno je promeniti i oblik pasiva iz aktiva u pasiv.

Aktiv (active) => pasiv (passive)

discovered  => was discovered

Kada se rečenica pretvara iz aktiva u pasiv, glagol TO BE mora biti u vremenu u kojem je rečenica u aktivu.

U nekim situacijama je u pasivu neophodno navesti vršioca radnje, pa ga treba staviti na kraj rečenice i ispred njega staviti predlog BY

Penicilin was discovered by Sir Alexander Fleming.

Pri postavljanju pitanja u pasivu, pomoćni glagol se stavlja ispred subjekta:

2Sada je trenutak da uradite naredna onlajn vežbanja:

Passive voice 1 – all tenses

Passive voice 2 – all tenses

Passive voice 3 

Passive voice 4 – making questions in the passive

Passive voice 5 – Past Simple and Past Perfect

Passive voice 6 – the Romans in Britain

Posle popunjavanja svih polja, kliknite na DONE kako biste proverili broj osvojenih poena, dok klik na Show answers prikazuje tačne odgovore.

Za kraj, poslušajte ovu pesmu kao ilustraciju pasiva:

Kako napisati poslovno pismo na engleskom?

1)   Oslovljavanje

Koristite formalne pozdrave:

–       Dear Sir / Madam

–       Dear Sirs

–       Dear Mr / Ms / Mrs / Miss + prezime (nikako nemojte pisati ime)

2)   Uvod

Koristite sledeće fraze koje se odnose na npr. objavljen oglas na koji se javljate, odnosno navedite razlog zbog kojeg pišete pismo:

–       I am writing with regard to…

–       I saw your advertisement in…and I was interested in…

–       I am writing to ask if you could inform me about…

–       I was interested in your advertisement published in…

–       I would appreciate some further information about…

3)    Tekst pisma (preporučuje se da u ovom delu ima od jednog do tri pasusa):

Ne zaboravite da koristite sledeće reči ili fraze kao uvod u ovaj deo:

–       Firstly, first of all, to begin / start with, secondly, furthermore, also, in addition, what is more, apart from that, finally…

Nemojte prečesto koristiti direktna pitanja;  učtivije je umesto toga koristiti pitanja kao što su:

–       I would like to know / ask…

–       Could / would you please inform me / let me know…?

–       I would be grateful if you could tell me…

–       I would be interested in knowing…

4)   Zaključak

Koristite uobičajene fraze za kraj poslovne prepiske:

–       I would be grateful if you would / could reply as soon as possible.

–       Thank you for your time and assistance.

–       I would like to thank you in advance.

–       I look forward to hearing from you soon.

5)   Potpis

Uobičajene fraze za kraj poslovnog pisma su:

–       Yours faithfully (kada ne znamo ime osobe kojoj pišemo pismo)

–       Yours sincerely (kada znamo ime osobe kojoj pišemo pismo)

Na kraju pisma se obavezno potpišite, a ispod potpisa otkucajte i puno ime i prezime, i ukoliko je potrebno i funkciju ili zvanje.

Primer poslovnog pisma možete pogledati ovde.

Second conditional

Podsetite se drugog kondicionala kroz vežbanje tako što ćete kliknuti OVDE.

U sledećem snimku sa Jutjuba možete obnoviti ovaj gramatički deo slušajući razgovor iz svakodnevnog života:

Sledi odlomak iz serije „The Big Bang Theory„, u Srbiji nespretno prevedene kao „Štreberi“, sa mnoštvom primera koji ilustruju upotrebu drugog kondicionala:

Mnogo je pesama u kojima možete uočiti primere ovog kondicionala. Neke od njih su:

If I were a boy even just for a day
I’d roll out of bed in the morning
And throw on what I wanted
And go drink beer with the guys

And chase after girls
I’d kick it with who I wanted
And I’d never get confronted for it
‘Cause they stick up for me

If I were a boy
I think I could understand
How it feels to love a girl
I swear I’d be a better man

I’d listen to her
‘Cause I know how it hurts
When you lose the one you wanted
‘Cause he’s taking you for granted
And everything you had got destroyed

If I were a boy
I would turn off my phone
Tell everyone it’s broken
So they’d think that I was sleeping alone

I’d put myself first
And make the rules as I go
‘Cause I know that she’d be faithful
Waiting for me to come home, to come home

If I were a boy
I think I could understand
How it feels to love a girl
I swear I’d be a better man

I’d listen to her
‘Cause I know how it hurts
When you lose the one you wanted
‘Cause he’s taking you for granted
And everything you had got destroyed

It’s a little too late for you to come back
Say it’s just a mistake
Think I’d forgive you like that
If you thought I would wait for you
You thought wrong

But you’re just a boy
You don’t understand
And you don’t understand, oh
How it feels to love a girl
Someday you wish you were a better man

You don’t listen to her
You don’t care how it hurts
Until you lose the one you wanted
‘Cause you’re taking her for granted
And everything you had got destroyed
But you’re just a boy.

If you could read my mind love
What a tale my thoughts would tell
Just like an old time movie
‘Bout a ghost from a wishing well
In a castle dark or a fortress strong
With chains upon my feet
You know that ghost is me

I don’t know where we went wrong
But the feeling’s gone and I just can’t get it back
If you could read my mind, yeah

If you could read your mind love
What a tale my thoughts would tell
Just like a paperback novel
The kind that drugstores sell
When you reach the part where the heartache comes
The hero would be you
Heroes often fail

Never thought I could feel this way
And I’ve got to say that I just don’t get it
I don’t know where we went wrong
But the feeling’s gone and I just can’t get it back
If you could read my mind

If you could
If you could
If you could read my mind (repeat)

If you could read my mind love
What a tale my thoughts would tell
Just like an old time movie
‘Bout a ghost from a wishing well

If you could read my mind love
What a tale my thoughts would tell
Just like a paperback novel
The kind that drugstores sell

And when you reach the part where the heartache comes
The hero would be you
Heroes often fail

Never thought I could feel this way
And I’ve got to say that I just don’t get it
I don’t know where we went wrong
But the feeling’s gone
And I just can’t get it back

If you could
If you could
If you could read my mind

Ovo je samo jedna od mnogobrojnih verzija pesme „If you could read my mind“; obradili su je, između ostalih, i Johnny Cash, Viola Wills, dok orginalnu verziju izvodi Gordon Lightfoot.

Redni brojevi (za označavanje datuma)

Redni brojevi se upotrebljavaju umesto osnovnih za označavanje:

  • datuma u mesecu: the nineteenth of May (devetnaesti maj);
  • rodoslov vladara: Henry the Sixth (Henry VI)
  • poglavlja u knjizi: chapter the tenth (glava deseta);
  • posle reči every, kao što su izrazi: every third day (svakog trećeg dana).

Najpre poslušajte sledeći snimak, u kome vam profesor engleskog kao maternjeg jezika pomaže da usvojite izgovor rednih brojeva od 1 do 31.

Za kraj, pogledajte tabelu u kojoj su navedeni najvažniji redni brojevi u engleskom jeziku:

Prepositions of time and date – in / at / on

Preposition Use Examples
in in months in July; in September
year in 1985; in 1999
seasons in summer; in the summer of 69
part of the day in the morning; in the afternoon; in the evening
duration in a minute; in two weeks
at part of the day at night
time of day at 6 o’clock; at midnight
celebrations at Christmas; at Easter
fixed phrases at the end of the week
at the same time
on days of the week on Sunday; on Friday
date on the 25th of December*
special holidays on Good Friday; on Easter Sunday; on my birthday
a special part of a day on the morning of September the 11th*
after later than sth. after school
ago how far sth. happened (in the past) 6 years ago
before earlier than sth. before Christmas
between time that separates two points between Monday and Friday
by not later than a special time by Thursday
during through the whole of a period of time during the holidays
for period of time for three weeks
from … to
from… till/until
two points form a period from Monday to Wednesday
from Monday till Wednesday
from Monday until Wednesday
past time of the day 23 minutes past 6 (6:23)
since point of time since Monday
till/until no later than a special time till tomorrow
until tomorrow
to time of the day 23 minutes to 6 (5:37)
up to not more than a special time up to 6 hours a day
within during a period of time within a day

Nakon podećanja na upotrebu navedenih predloga, proverite svoje znanje tako što ćete rešiti kviz koji se nalazi OVDE.

Broj poena možete saznati ako kliknete na Grade me, na dnu članka, dok Click here for the answer sheet prikazuje tačne odgovore.

Predlažem i kviz Britanskog saveta, koji možete rešiti ako kliknete OVDE.

Tačne odgovore dobijate klikom na Check answers.

Practice makes perfect!

First conditional

Podsetite se prvog kondicionala kroz vežbanje tako što ćete kliknuti OVDE.

U sledećim pesmama možete uočiti primere prvog kondicionala:

„If You Don’t Know Me By Now“ by Simply Red

If you don’t know me by now
You will never never never know me

All the things that we’ve been through
You should understand me like I understand you
Now girl I know the difference between right and wrong
I ain’t gonna do nothing to break up our happy home
Oh don’t get so excited when I come home a little late at night
Cos we only act like children when we argue fuss and fight

If you don’t know me by now (If you don’t know me)
You will never never never know me (No you won’t)
If you don’t know me by now
You will never never never know me

We’ve all got our own funny moods
I’ve got mine, woman you’ve got yours too
Just trust in me like I trust in you
As long as we’ve been together it should be so easy to do
Just get yourself together or we might as well say goodbye
What good is a love affair when you can’t see eye to eye, oh

If you don’t know me by now (If you don’t know me)
You will never never never know me (No you won’t)
If you don’t know me by now (You will never never never know me)
You will never never never know me (ooh)

„If You Leave Me Now“ by Chicago

If you leave me now, you’ll take away the biggest part of me
No baby please don’t go
If you leave me now, you’ll take away the very heart of me
No baby please don’t go
A love like ours is love that’s hard to find
How could we let it slip away
We’ve come too far to leave it all behind
How could we end it all this way
When tomorrow comes we’ll both regret
Things we said today
Cause I need you more than you’ll ever know

Going to versus Future Simple Tense

When we want to talk about future facts or things we believe to be true about the future, we use will.

  • The President will serve for five years.
  • The boss won’t be very happy.
  • I’m sure you’ll like her.
  • I’m certain he’ll do a good job.

If we are not so certain about the future, we use will with expressions such as probably, possibly, I think, I hope.

  • I hope you’ll visit me in my home one day.
  • She’ll probably be a great success.
  • I’ll be there, I promise you.
  • I’ll possibly come but I may not get back in time.
  • I think we’ll get on well.

If you are making a future prediction based on evidence in the present situation, use going to.

  • Not a cloud in the sky. It’s going to be another warm day.
  • Look at the queue. We’re not going to get in for hours.
  • The traffic is terrible. We’re going to miss our flight.
  • Be careful! You’re going to spill your coffee.

At the moment of making a decision, use will. Once you have made the decision, talk about it using going to.

  • I’ll call Mary to let her know. Ann, I need Mary’s number. I’m going to call her about the meeting.
  • I’ll come and have a drink with you but I must let Michael know. Michael, I’m going to have a drink with Tom.

U narednom vežbanju je potrebno da se u rečenicama opredelite za Going to ili Future Simple Tense. Rešenja se nalaze na dnu članka. 

Choose the correct answer:

1)    I feel dreadful; I _____ be sick.

a)    am going to

b)    will

c)    Either could be used here.

2)    Tonight, I ________ stay in – I’ve bought a new DVD release of my favourite film.

a)    am going to

b)    will

c)     Either could be used here.

3)    If you have any problems, don’t worry; I _______ help you.

a)    am going to

b)    will

c)    Either could be used here.

4)    I completely forgot about it. Give me a moment; I _____ do it now.

a)    am going to

b)    will

c)    Either could be used here.

5)    Look at those clouds – it ______ rain any minute now.

a)    is going to

b)    will

c)    Either could be used here.

6)    The weather forecast says it _____ snow tomorrow.

a)    is going to

b)    will

c)    Either could be used here.

7)    That’s the phone – I __________ answer it.

a)    am going to

b)    will

c)    Either could be used here.

8)    Thanks for the offer, but I’m OK; Susan _______ help me.

a)    is going to

b)    will

c)    Either could be used here.

9)    Where are you going?

a)    I am going to see a friend.

b)    I’ll see a friend.

10) Tea or coffee?

a)    I’m going to have tea, please.

b)    I’ll have tea, please.

Answer key:

  1. a
  2. a
  3. b
  4. b
  5. a
  6. c
  7. b
  8. c
  9. a
  10. b

Past Simple versus Past Continuous Tense

Both the Past Simple and the Past Continuous refer to completed actions in the past.

Most of the time when we are talking about such actions, we use the Past Simple. This is by far the most common way of talking about the past, either for a past action when the time is given or when the action clearly took place at a definite time even though this time is not mentioned.

  • Dostoyevsky died in 1837.
  • The train was ten minutes late.
  • How did you get your present job?
  • I bought this car in Belgrade.

Only use the Past Continuous when you want to emphasize the continuity of the action. These past actions continued for some time, but their exact limits are not known and are not important.

  • Everybody was talking about it all evening.
  • They were really trying hard but couldn’t do it.
  • I was thinking about you the other day.
  • Were you expecting that to happen?

When we use these two forms in the same sentence, we use the Past Continuous to talk about the background action and the Past Simple to talk about shorter completed action.

  • It was raining hard when we left the building.
  • I was reading the report when you rang.
  • He was going out to lunch when I saw him.
  • The company was doing well when I last visited it.

U narednom vežbanju je potrebno da se u rečenicama opredelite za Past Simple ili Past Continuous Tense. Rešenja se nalaze na dnu članka. 

Choose the correct answer:

1)    He ________ into London, but it would have been easier to take the train.

a)    drove

b)    was driving

2)    I ________ she was coming on Friday, but it seems she’s coming on Saturday.

a) thought

b) was thinking

3) She ________ for a new coat, but she bought some boots and a dress instead.

a) looked

b) was looking

4) We ______ down on a bench to watch the children playing in the park.

a) sat

b) were sitting

5) This time last week we __________ on the beach in Hawaii.

a) sat

b) were sitting

6) He _______ to park his car there, but he couldn’t get into the space.

a) tried

b) was trying

7) I saw her a few minutes ago. She ________ to park her car.

a) tried

b) was trying

8) I l_______  for it, but I couldn’t find it.

a) looked

b) was looking

9) It was odd. I ________ about her when she called me.

a) thought

b) was thinking

10) I _________ home when I heard the news on the radio.

a) drove

b) was driving

Answer key:

  1. a
  2. a
  3. b
  4. a
  5. b
  6. a
  7. b
  8. a
  9. b
  10. b

Present Perfect versus Past Simple Tense

The Past Simple is used to talk about actions in the past that have finished. It talks about then and doesn’t include now.

The Present Perfect is used to look back on actions in the past from the present. It always includes now.

These sentences are in the past with no connection to the present.

  • I first got to know him 10 years ago.
  • I started work here in 2005.
  • I had too much to eat at lunchtime.

Now look at these same situations seen from the present.

  • We have lived in London for 10 years.
  • She has been here since 6 o’clock.
  • My stomach hurts. I’ve eaten too much.

We use time expressions like yesterday, ago, last year, in 2012 with the Past Simple.

  • We spoke to him yesterday.
  • He came in a few moments ago.
  • We made our last purchase from them over a year ago.
  • She joined the company in 2012.

We use time expressions such as ever, never, since with the Present Perfect.

  • I’ve never seen so many people here before.
  • Have you ever been more surprised?
  • I’ve worked here since I left school.

Typical time expressions used with the Present Perfect in British English, but often used with the Past Simple in American English are already, just, yet.

I haven’t done it yet. (BE)

I didn’t do it yet. (AE)

I’ve just done it. (BE)

I just did it. (AE)

I’ve already done it. (BE)

I already did it. (AE)

U narednom vežbanju je potrebno da se u rečenicama opredelite za Present Perfect ili Past Simple. Rešenja se nalaze na dnu članka. 

Choose the correct answer:

1)    He ________ there when he was a child.

a)    has lived

b)    lived

2)    I ______ her since last year.

a)    haven’t seen

b)    didn’t see

3)    They ______ a few minutes ago.

a)    left

b)    have left

4)    She __________ unemployed since she left school.

a)    has not been

b)    was not

5)    She _______ since Thursday.

a)    was

b)    has been

6)    ________ the project last night.

a) have finished

b) finished

7) __________ to Italy?

a) Did you ever go

b) Have you ever been

8) I can’t get into my house because I ________ my keys.

a) lost

b) have lost

9) I _______ up smoking last year.

a) gave

b) have given

10) You can’t see her because she _______ home.

a) has gone

b) went

11) It’s the first time I _________ caviar.

a) ate

b) have eaten

12) It stinks in here; someone ___________ smoking.

a) was

b) has been

13) He’s in hospital because he ________ leg.

a) has broken

b) broke

14) The last time I saw Kate ______ ages ago.

a) was

b) has been

15) I _______ from her lately.

a) haven’t heard

b) didn’t hear

16) _________ to the concert on Friday?

a) Did you go

b) Have you been

17) This is the first time I _________ here.

a) have been

b) was

18) They _________ the contract yet.

a) didn’t sign

b) haven’t signed

19) The newspaper __________ very successful lately.

a) hasn’t been

b) wasn’t

20) I _________ breakfast before leaving home this morning.

a) haven’t had

b) didn’t have

21) John is nervous because he ___________ such a difficult test before.

a) has never taken

b) never took

22) Two people ________ at the game on Saturday.

a) were arrested

b) have been arrested

23) We _______ out on Saturday night.

a) haven’t gone

b) didn’t go

24) I _______ it last week.

a) bought

b) have bought

25) She ______ an absolute fortune last year.

a) has earned

b) earned

26) I ________ the dog for a walk because it was raining.

a) haven’t taken

b) didn’t take

27) The weather ________ dreadful at the weekend.

a) has been

b) was

Answer key:

  1. b
  2. a
  3. a
  4. a
  5. b
  6. b
  7. b
  8. b
  9. a
  10. a
  11. b
  12. b
  13. a
  14. a
  15. a
  16. a
  17. a
  18. b
  19. a
  20. a
  21. a
  22. a
  23. b
  24. a
  25. b
  26. b
  27. b